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The underground railroad was the word they used used to describe a system of meeting places, passageways, secret routes, and safe houses used by enslaved african americans in the United States to escape from slave states to the north and also Canada. Established in the early 1800s, and aided by people who were involved in the Abolitionist Movement, it assisted thousands of slaves to break free from enslavement. It was estimated once that 100,000 slaves had escaped from slavery between the years 1810 and 1850. These thousands of slaves could not have escaped without the help of abolitionists. Abolitionists are people, black or white, who advocated or supported to overthrow slavery in the United States (HistoryNet, 2018).    The term underground railroad, is commonly referred to as metro or tube in the modern world. Today, there metro trains running through many countries in the world. The Tube, in London, being the oldest of the underground railways. There 168 metro railways currently in the world. The phrase underground railroad, refers to something entirely different. It was neither underground or a train.    The Underground Railroad already existed in the early 1780’s and even George Washington, the first president of the United States, had mentioned of these practices. In the early part of the 19th century this term became known across the country.John Brown was an abolitionist whose hatred of slavery led him to seize the U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry in October of 1859. Many believed that his intentions were to arm slaves for a rebellion. He was a man of action. He was also convinced that God had chosen him to lead slaves into freedom. His attempt to free many slaves failed, but it helped establish the League of Gileadites, which was an organization that protected runaway slaves from their masters (HistoryNet, 2018).Frederick was born a slave in Maryland, shipped to Baltimore where he spent seven years, and then shipped back to the country to a cruel slave owner. He was whipped on a daily basis and rarely fed. He had a plan to escape but he was discovered and jailed for his attempt. Two years after that, when he was working at a shipyard in Baltimore, he fled for New York. Two weeks later, he was in New Bedford, Massachusetts and was married. To make a living began to speak at anti slavery conventions in England, Ireland, and Scotland. In 1845, he published the first issue of his antislavery newspaper, “The North Star”.Henry was a preacher that made his church a stop for the slaves in the underground railroad and an anti slavery institution. He preached against slavery and against unfair wage cuts in the working class. He became one of the most famous men in America by speaking his beliefs to slaves, abolitionists, and others through the age of slavery in the United States.She was originally born with the name Isabella. She was separated from her family at the age of nine. Sojourner was a slave and was sold and bought many times until she was bought by John and Mary Dumont. She was abused very frequently, but eventually succeeded to escape to freedom. She became a preacher in New York City, which brought her in contact with abolitionists and women’s right defenders. I became a powerful advocate for both. She became a powerful advocate for both. She also wrote a book, “The Narrative of Sojourner Truth” about her life as a slave (Biography.com, 2018).Harriet was born a slave in Dorchester County Maryland. Once she was protecting a field hand from an angry master with a brick, the master hit her instead with the brick on accident. She never fully recovered and throughout her life she would fall into a deep sleep randomly. She was married in 1844, to John Tubman, but when she found out all the slaves on the plantation were going to be sold, she ran away to Philadelphia where she saved money, then returned to Maryland, where she rescued her sister, and her children. On her next trip, she rescued her brother and two other men, returning on her next trip to rescue her husband, only to find out he had married another woman. She then returned to the south again and again nineteen times in fact, and never once lost a passenger (Biography.com, 2018).Harriet Stowe married Calvin Ellis Stowe, in 1836, and remained married for 50 years. Living in Kentucky, she saw first hand the brutality of slavery and helped her house servant, Zillah, escape to Canada. She wrote a book against slavery, “Uncle Tom’s Cabin”, first published in the newspaper “A National Era” and then later on published in book form and sold 10,000 copies.At the end of the Underground Railroad was in 1863 when President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation which gave rights and freedoms to African Americans and made slavery illegal. There was no longer a use for the railroad system. Lincoln said ‘that all persons held as slaves are, and henceforward shall be free” (National Archives, 2018).

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