Multi-techniques approach is being well recognized inthe area
of archaeological research to have complete enlightenment 1.The general
purpose is quantitative measurements in solving problems related to assumption
the origin of archaeological and arts materials and methodologies, the
identification of these materials in respect of human cultural history, and to
assistance in preservation and conservation of the artifacts to the future 2.
They give significant information regarding to the materials and production
procedure of archaeological artifacts. Archaeological pottery provides
knowledge earned from over several decades to the recent research.
Investigation of archaeological pottery has evolved into greater extent
significant over the previous century. Great information about the daily life
and culture were given to the archaeologist. Minerals investigation of pottery
firmly clarify the sort of clay, firing temperature, kiln atmospheric condition
implemented by the potter, so, it is essential to assess mineral composition to
answer technological issues of pottery manufacturing3.Characterization of
pottery is carried out frequently by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR)
spectroscopy analysis and this techniques is usefulness in recognize a variety
of materials, structure, bonding and chemical properties of clay mineral4-7.Moreover,
X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) is most popular utilized for quantitative
characterization of mineralogical composition in the provenance study of
was performed for the investigation of major, minor and traceelements of the
fresh-fractured surface of pottery samples.Trace elements characterization has
been utilized to get the interpretation on the origin place of archaeological
pottery. Specifically, it may lead to recognize the source of the clay utilized
to pottery production.SEM-EDS techniques are rapid element analysis technique
small amount of sample is needed9. ED-XRF is accomplished too as co-dependent
analysis for elemental analysis.XRF spectrometry is a rapid analysisthat can be
utilized to all material phasesolids, powdersof liquids and gases too.
Furthermore, it is appropriate over awide range of concentrations (from 1 ppm
to 100%), getting elemental range within Sodium and Uranium 10.Determination
of the sort of clay minerals (Calcareous/Non-Calcareous and even if the
pottery is high or low refractory) and
calculation of firing atmosphere assumed by artisan at the time of production
was carried out by chemical investigation on the samples 11.
gravimetric analysis is regularly utilized to explore investigated pottery
samples, degradation temperatures, amount of absorbed moisture and the
proportion of organic and inorganic composition in the archaeological pottery
samples; it recognizes one to manage the procedure of firing and show the variation
as results of thermal method simultaneously 12.
approach is usually utilized to determine grouping arrangements of provenance
study of the archaeological samples in description of concept of chemical
this work, seven pottery samples from Esh-shaheinab, Kadaro and
Jebel-Um-Marahi, Neolithic archaeological sites in Sudan, were investigated in
order to evaluate consistency between their compositions. For compositional
investigation a multi-analytical approach was adopted, which required the use
of non-destructive or micro-destructive techniques as Scanning Electron Microscope
equipped and coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS), Fourier
Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric
analysis TGA) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Florescence (ED-XRF).