Mary SchaufMs. MoynihanAP Comparative GovernmentJanuary 26, 2018Brothers From the Same Mother The Sino Soviet Split has advanced a blossoming relationship built upon animosity and instability into the new millennial. Reattachment has begun through a fragile alliance. Strategic agreements have been put into place to strengthen this alliance for the two dominating countries. Shared ideological pasts and both economic and political history between China and Russia has had a strong effect on current global affairs. China and Russia have been committed to communism being dominant in both respective nations. Identical ideas of democratic centralism have placed power with the Communist party. The clawing towards industrialization was evident in both Communist states. The Communist Party of China, formed in 1921, eventually fell under the influence of Mao Zedong. From the Sino-Soviet Split, Zedong drifted from Marxism and Leninism and developed Maoism. In Maoism, Zedong applied Leninism, Marxism, and Stalinism and personalized it on the extremities and problems that China faced. Stalinism, adapted from Leninism and Marxism, was grew up from humble beginnings and was the leader of the Bolsheviks. Stalin, often referred to the age of Leninism and Marxism as “eras of imperialism and proletarian dictatorship” (Economic and Political Weekly). Joseph Stalin tried to differ from his Tsarist predecessors, both economically and politically. Stalin exploited the Soviet Union by decreasing the national level of consumption, excess labor, backlogs on both investments and technological advances, and the failure of the peasantry class. Stalin also focused on gradual collectivism. Under this idea, Stalin tried to implement the peasantry with new tools and techniques in order to, as author of Soviet Studies Narkiewicz puts, “make gradually a transition from small peasant farms to large collective industry” (Soviet Studies page 21). This collectivism was to push towards gradual industrialization. The Soviet Five Year plan also follows suit. This plan consisted of economic plans in a post revolutionary Soviet Union in order to achieve Industrialization. It sacrificed the population of the Soviet Union for the goals of the collective. Under Deng Xiaoping, the economic system in China transformed. Under his reformations, an era of economic boom and a becoming dominant competitor in the global economy commenced. His experience as Minister of Finance was transferred into his leadership positions through his initiation of incentive economic measures. In a post Maoist economy, China had rehabilitation to do. Because of the implementation of policies favoring the isolation of China and the Great Leap Forward, China’s economy had suffered. The Great Leap Forward of 1957 was the transfer from socialism to communism through an economic and social campaign in order to radically fasten industrialization. Deng Xiaoping’s economic sphere was dominated by “rectification and accelerated growth”, (The China Quarterly pg. 498). This was done through the economic liberation of China. This aims to limit power of the state and increase the freedom and power of the market and private property in the economy. On paper, this implementation of economic liberation should be accompanied by political liberation as well- transfer towards a capitalistic and democratic state. China remains an enigma through its system of tightening and loosening. This is a system in which the Chinese government administers more capitalistic policies while strengthening and tightening on communist and political systems. Conversely, Russia has been proof that economic reform is soon followed by political reform. Followed by rapid deterioration throughout the 1980’s, The Soviet Union fell in 1991. Competing capitalistic policies, over-centralization, and dictatorship led to the ultimate demise of Communism in Russia. As a result of falling growth rates, imbalances, high demands for inputs, and low rates of technological change, the Soviet Union felt extreme pressure for economic reform. Perestroika was the response to these said pressures. Perestroika was the restructuring of the Soviet Union economic structures under Gorbachev. The fall of the Berlin Wall and lost in the Cold War shortly superseded. The Communist Party still holds dominant influence in China. The Ideology and Organization in Communist China suggests that “by the mid-1960s, it was becoming clear that the Chinese Communist were moving in the direction of creating a new organizational trinity of state, where party, government, and army each played a different, vital, and interrelated role”( The State of State page 92). Presently, China is now moving towards local political reform. There have been recent efforts to reform their current state of economy. There has also been reform both socially and and politically, for example the expansion of the One Child Policy. Russia has faced very drastic political reform in recent years. The development of the Kremlin Constitution of 1993 set up the Russian political system into the post-communist era. Legitimacy in the government being sought through election rather than pressure or ideology was a novelty. Although, there is still a lack of transparency in the current political system of Russia, glasnost is still adopted and used- increasing openness in political institutions. Demokratizatsiya is also used to implement democratic policies- it is restricted yet exploited by the Russian people. The introduction of the free market has made Russia’s economy more competitive globally. Throughout the entirety of Russia’s reform, liberation, and destruction of the traditional system all but two elements remain: personalized power and principle invisibility. Although collectivism was abandoned, power still remains at the executive branch. Russia and China both are parallel in that they are striving to be dominant in the global market. In the cooperation between Russia and China they are able to face Western pressures together. There is currently widening understanding of each country of the other-creating a stronger alliance. In response to global pressure, Russia has democratized politically and enforced political reform and liberated its economy through capitalist policies. On the other hand, China’s stubbornness can be evident through its hold on communism as its political ideology while passing economic policies with capitalistic tendencies. In 1980, the People’s Republic of China opened its economy to the world, ending a period of isolation. Communes were broken up throughout the country. Maoist were replaced by more moderate (economically speaking) Communist- such as Deng Xiaoping. Socially, China has ended its One Child Policy and expanded it to two children as a result of social pressure and implication as well as domestic ramifications. China also joined the World Trade Organization, pushing their age of isolation ever more in the past. Although Russia was already open to global affairs post- Soviet Union, it has increased more in recent years. Relations between the NATO Military Alliance and the Russian Federation remain hostile. 2014, hostility arose when Russia annexed Crimea in the Ukrainian Crisis. NATO supported the sovereignty of Ukraine. NATO deemed Russia as violating Ukraine’s territorial dignity. Global pressures have amounted, similar to this, due to Russia’s aggressive foreign policies. Russia is beginning to be seen as a threat, globally. In the wake of the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia and China have formed a hollowed allianced. Although their shared frontiers and global disappointments have proven hostile, Russia and China claw together to retain their erstwhile status as globally dominant nations. Parallel ideologies and sporoutings under Communism have affected the histories of the countries. These shared pasts hold a strong hand over current global affairs.
August 2, 2019 0 Comments