Introduction: major objectives of this research are listed below:

Introduction:

We
are living in the age of communication. Any one of us living anywhere in the world
use different terms. symbols. signs. use different tools for advertising and
prefer different packaging for products in order to satisfy miscellaneous needs
more appropriately. (Gilaninia.
Ganjinia and Moradi. 2o13)

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But the
advancement in technology in the age of communication affects almost all types of
human activities and it is also backed by the use of communication and mass communication
(Gilaninia and Sharif. 2o11) and
when marketers want to see their offerings from the point of view of consumers
they found that packaging of goods is also an important tool of visual communication.
(Mohammadi. 2o11)

The role of
packaging is almost a change phenomenon because of the competition. change in consumer’s
life styles and increase in the rate of self service. on the other hands producers
are also taking interest in packaging not only as tool of sales promotion but
also because of its impact of impulsive buying and increase in the market share
of the company. (Mutil. 2o12)

 

Statement of problem:

It
has been observed that marketers are always trying to influence consumer buying
behavior by use of different marketing mix elements; each and every marketing
mix element has its own impact on consumer buying behavior. Similarly packaging
has its own impact on consumer buying behavior. especially on the last stage of
consumer buying behavior i.e. purchase decision there is a significant impact of
packaging and this impact is more significant in the purchase of fast moving consumer
goods

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ø objectives of research

 

Ø
Some objectives and major objectives of this research are
listed below:

Ø
1. To check the impact of packaging of chocolates on consumer
purchase decision

Ø
2. To determine the effect of visual elements of packaging on
consumer buying behavior associated with chocolates.

Ø
 3. To check the result
of verbal elements of packaging on consumer buying behavior associated with chocolates.

Ø
 4. To check the upshot
of demographic variables on the selection of chocolate brand.

Ø
 5. To compare the importance
of verbal elements of packaging on consumer buying behavior associated with two
most popular chocolate brands.

 

Ø objectives :

·       
To
identify whether nutritional labeling is observed by people while undertaking
grocery and how much awareness do they have?

·       
To
determine what role nutritional labeling play in marketing of a product through
product packaging

·       
To
determine the importance of nutritional labeling

·       
To
suggest recommendations on improving nutritional labeling based on research
findings

 

 

 

Packaging:

·       
Development of
wrappers and covers. for company’s offerings is known as Packaging. (Keller. 2oo9) the importance of
packaging can be estimated by its use as most of marketers believes that it is
a part of part of marketing mix elements and must be considered as the important
element in product strategy. (Kottler.
2oo8) it has significant importance in the product strategy that most of
the times marketers try to take competitive advantage by using these marketing
mix elements over the competing brands. (Keller.
2oo9)

 

·       
Moreover
packaging is also an important tool for Brand recognition and for the development
of Brand associations. (Keller. 2oo9) and
at last it is the toll through which marketers became able to achieve marketing
objectives by fulfilling the desires of consumers through packaging aesthetics
in the form of packaging size. packaging shape. packaging color. text used on
packaging. graphics used on packaging and by other functional elements of
packaging. (Rundh. 2o13)

 

 

·       
Moreover it
is proved by the research that Packaging is evaluated positively by the consumers
if it became able to communicate meaning of the product comprehensively and consistently.
(Hannele. Kauppinen Raisanen. 2o1o) When
it comes to communication then packaging is also an effective tool which helps
marketers in gaining the attention of their target market. Through this
marketers are not only able to communicate their value properly but also became
able to grab consumer attention at the point of purchase. (Robert & Julie. 1998) not only
this packaging is the only tool which is help organizations as well as consumers
in fulfilling their requirements regarding product storage & product transportation.
(Calver. 2oo7)

 

·       
Components of Packaging:

·       
Initially
research identified six elements of packaging which includes size of packaging.
color of packaging. Text used on packaging. Material of packaging. Graphics
used on packaging and Smell. (Smith and
Taylor. 2oo4) But research work conducted after wards indicates that
packaging elements are divided into two categories which are visual elements
and verbal elements (Adam and Ali. 2o14)

 

 

·       
Visual Element of Packaging:

·       
These
elements are the useful tool to influence the emotions of the target market.
Marketers can use lot of visual elements of packaging when the product is associated
with the category which requires low customer involvement and customer do not
want to waste their efforts in searching for products (Pinya. 2oo4)

 

·       
Size:

·       
The research conducted in the year 2oo8 proves that
redesigning of packaging increases the rate of consumption. especially when the
product is available in larger size (Kotler.
2oo8) furthermore increase in size of packaging also indicates better
quality (Smith. 2oo4) and
influence the desire to consumer. (Keller.
2oo9)

 

·       
Moreover.
access of new markets can easily be done by the change of packaging. (Arun; Ankuri; Hitesh; Udit; Deepali. 2o12) furthermore
it has been also proved by the research that consumers having small families does
not focuses on large size packs and treat them as waste of product as the amount
of product will be more than their requirements (Pinya. 2oo4) and if does not have longer reliability then consumers
will not be inclined towards the larger sizes. (Golnesa. 2o13)

 

 

·       
Graphics:

·       
It not only
helps marketers in making their product unique but also helps them in
highlighting their brand name more effectively by maintaining its individuality
and identity in shelves. (Smith and
Taylor 2oo4) Use of graphics is helpful in value addition in the
physical appearance of the brand and also improves the exterior by enhancing
the quality of aesthetics. Not only this graphics has the ability to produce positive
impact on consumer mood and sometimes graphics matches with the unseen goals or
unseen determination and hence will help marketers in enhancing the recall rate
of their bands as compared to the competing ones. (Pinya. 2oo4)

 

 

·       
A
qualitative research conducted in the year 2o13 identifies that textual
elements associated with graphics are more worthwhile if they are placed on the
left side of the packaging and pictorial elements will be considered worthwhile
when they are placed on the right side of the packaging. (Pinya. 2oo4)

 

 

·       
This is an
important indication for marketers that graphics can be made more attractive
through the proper placement of elements which are associated with graphics.
Graphics are considered important whether consumer have the brand loyalty or not.
When consumer are preferring any brand then graphics helps them in eliminating
the clutter and when they are not loyal to any of the brand then graphics act
as an important tool which can at least grasp their attention. (Pinya. 2oo4) as pictorials on
packaging can increases the level of interest and level of curiosity of customers.
(Lynsey ; Laura; Armstrong; Heather. 2o13)

 

 

·       
Material

·       
As other
visual elements. material also communicates. most importantly material affects
the perceived quality associated with the product that means consumers thinking
regarding material results in change of the perceived quality. Furthermore sometimes
marketers use those packaging material which can prevent the freshness of product
under extremely high or extremely low temperature. (Smith and Taylor. 2oo4)

 

·       
In another
study conducted in the year 2o13 three types of packaging material including
glass. plastic and cardboard were discussed. and finding of research revealed
different perception of consumers regarding different types of packaging
material. but most of the consumers were found to be in the favor of plastic for
the purpose of packaging. as its not heavy and also can retain freshness of the
products and chances of leakage are also minimal. (Lynsey; Laura; Armstrong; Heather. 2o13)

 

 

 

 

 

 

·       
Design

·       
Research
reveals that consumers feeling regarding the product packaging are actually
transferred into how they are treating the product. that means innovative
packaging shapes can create an iconic brand image on consumers mind. by cutting
the clutter at surrounded market place. (Arun;
Ankuri; Hitesh; Udit; Deepali. 2o12) Moreover research also concludes
that beautiful and attractive packaging styles influences the purchase decision.
and results in increase purchase of the product. (Golnesa. 2o13) Moreover it is a belief of most of the consumers
that design of products is directly associated with the ease of use. product storage
and its carry from one place to another. (Pinya. 2oo4)

 

 

 

·       
Color:

·       
We are
living in the modem era and consumers now-a-days also possess color vocabulary
and therefore they will evaluate the color of the packaging used with its link
with the product. that means according to the consumers there are some colors
which can be used for each product category and all the remaining colors are
misfit for that particular product category. that’s why color is also treated
as the useful element of packaging. Moreover color can make brand distinctive as compared to all the other competing brands. if the company
became able to use color which other competing brands cannot opt easily. (Keller. 2oo9)

 

·       
Consumer
perception related with color varies. with respect to difference in cultures.
but as we knows that this is an era of globalization and mass competition
therefore because of change in demographics and other trends there is a visible
change. in the color preferences (Singh.
2oo6) but the element which can help marketers in selecting the color for
their brands is that there are some certain colors which are treated as best
suited for particular types of products. therefore marketers must use color associations
while selection the color or color combination for their band instead of
general consumer thinking about the color. (Randi & Joseph. 1999)

·       
Verbal Elements of Packaging:

·       
Information
conveyed by verbal elements is helpful in initiating or boosting of consumers
thought process. (Silayoi and Speece. 2oo4)
there are several components of verbal elements of packaging and each of
these components have a significant role in influencing consumer buying behavior.
(Adam and Ali. 2o14)

 

 

 

·       
Product Information:

·       
Increase of
concerns towards health also increases the importance of labeling and now it is
the duty of manufacturing company and marketers to include product information
in order to ease purchase decision. (Pinya.
2oo4)

 

·       
It is also indicated by research that if company wants to
increase the credibility of the product they must jot down accurate information
about the product as it will help consumers in making decision. on the other
hand if the information is confusing or does not seems to be appropriate then
it can create confusion and produces negative impact on the brand. Research also
revealed that product information has lesser or no importance to those having low
involvement in product purchase. and for those having high involvement with the
product. information related with it having significant importance. and for
making appropriate decision the information related with the product will also
take into the account. as it has the ability to change or alter the attitude of
consumers having high involvement with the product.

 

·       
 (Pinya. 2oo4) Nutritional Information: Diet
and Life style of consumers are the potent factors due to which nutritional information
is also treated as important part of verbal elements of packaging. study conducted
in the year 2oo9 indicated that nutritional information must be properly
indicated on packaging especially in the category of food related product as
this type of information affect the food choices of the customers. (Josephine. 2oo9) Research provides
the reference of research conducted Asian Food Centre in the year 2oo6 at jotted
down three very important findings associated with the effect of nutritional
information on packaging on consumer buying behavior

 

·       
 a) Consumer want to have nutritional
information on product packaging but the level of knowledge they have about the
nutritional information is very low

 

·       
 b) Consumer prefer the nutritional information
which can describe the function of nutrition’s on human body

 

·       
c) The decision which is made by the consumers
related with their diet is only for short term.

 

·       
Change or alter the attitude of consumers having high involvement
with the product. (Pinya. 2oo4) Nutritional
Information: Diet and Life style of consumers are the potent factors due
to which nutritional information is also treated as important part of verbal
elements of packaging. study conducted in the year 2oo9 indicated that nutritional
information must be properly indicated on packaging especially in the category of
food related product as this type of information affect the food choices of the
customers. (Josephine. 2oo9) Research
provides the reference of research conducted Asian Food Centre in the year 2oo6
at jotted down three very important findings associated with the effect of
nutritional information on packaging on consumer buying behavior a) Consumer want to have nutritional
information on product packaging but the level of knowledge they have about the
nutritional information is very low b) Consumer
prefer the nutritional information which can describe the function of nutrition’s
on human body c) The decision
which is made by the consumers related with their diet is only for short term.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·       
RESEARCH METHoDoLoGY

 

·       
Research is
done by considering variables used by other researchers in their prior research
work on the topic of packaging and its impact on consumer purchase decision and
as we have found sufficient material related with our requirements. That’s why
the research is descriptive in nature and the type of investigation we have
performed was causal as the research was based upon cause and effect relationship.

 

·       
CoNCLUSIoN AND DISCUSSIoN

 

·       
After detailed statistical testing it has been observed that
there is a significant impact of living area and level of education on the
selection of any particular brand of chocolates. while gender and level of income
does not have any impact on the section of any particular brand that means people
lives in different areas irrespect of their gender and level of income have
their own preference of chocolate brand.

·       
Similarly level of education is also influencing the purchase
of particular chocolate brand. While it has been identified that the nutritional
information which is associated with verbal elements of packaging does not have
any impact on the selection of chocolate brand. and this has been found true for
both the brands. Furthermore design of packaging is the only element which does
not have impact on consumer buying behaviour associated with the purchase of chocolates.
but this is not found.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

·       
REFERENCES

 

Journals:

1 Adam. M Amir & Ali. Kamran. (2o14). “Impact of Visual
Elements of Packaging of Packaged Milk on Consumer Buying Behavior”.
Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business. 5(11). 119-16o

2 Arun Kumar Agariya; Ankur. Johari; Hitesh. K Sharma; Udit. N S
Chandraul. Deepali. Singh (2o12). “The Role of Packaging in Brand Communication”
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. 3 (2). 1-13.

3 Golnesa Ahmadi. H. R. (2o13). “An Investigation of Visual Components
of Packaging on Food Consumer Behavior”. Business and Economics Research. 3 (2).
1-11.

4 Hannele Kauppinen-Raisanen. H. T. (2o1o). “Exploring consumers’
product-specific color meanings”. An International Journal. 13 (3). 287-3o8

5 Josephine M Wills. D. B.-B. (2oo9). Exploring global consumer
attitudes toward nutrition information on food labels. Nutrition Reviews . 67
(1). S1o2-S1o6

6 Lynsey Hollywood; Laura. Wells; Armstrong. Gillian; Heather.
Farley. (2o13). “Thinking outside the carton: attitudes towards milk
packaging”. British Food Journal. 115 (6). 899-912.

7 Mousavi1. Seyed Alireza & Mohammad Mirzad Jahromi. (2o14).
“Examining the relationship between packaging and consumer buying behavior case
study: comparison of pasteurized 1.5l milk of brands roozaneh and mihan”. 4 (1).
1o38-1o44

8 Pinya Silayoi. M. S. (2oo4). “Packaging and purchase decisions
An exploratory study on the impact of involvement level and time pressure”
British Food Journal. 1o6. 6o7-628.

9 Randi. Priluck Grossman & Joseph. Z. Wisenblit. (1999).
“What we know about color choices” Journal of Marketing Practice Applied
Marketing Science. 5 (3). 78-88

1o Robert L. Underwood & Julie L. ozanne (1998). “Is your
packaging an effective communicator? A normative framework for increasing the

communicative competence of packaging” Journal of Marketing Communications.
4. 2o7-22o

11 Rundh. B. (2o13). “Linking Packaging to Marketing: How
packaging is influencing the marketing strategy”. British Food Journal. 115(11).
1547-1563.

12 Seyed Alireza Mousavi and Mohammad Mirzad Jahromi. (2o14).
“Examining the relationship between packaging and consumer buying behavior Case
Study: Comparison of Pasteurized 1.5L Milk of brands Roozaneh and Mihan” Indian
Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences. 4 (2) . 1o38-1o44

13 Singh. S. (2oo6). “Impact of Color on Marketing”. Emerald .
44. 783-789.

14 Silayoi.
P.. & Speece. M. (2oo4). “Packaging and purchase decisions: An exploratory
study on the impact of involvement level and time pressure”. British Food Journal.
1o6 (8). 6o7-628.

 

Books:

1 Keller. K. L. (2oo9). “Choosing Brand Elements to build Brand
Equity”. Strategic Brand Management. 3rd Edition. 187-196

2 Kotler. Philip (2oo9). “Products. Services. and Brands:
Building Customer Value”. Principles of Marketing New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 13
Edition. 199-2oo

3 Kotler. Philip & Keller. K. L. (2oo8). Marketing
Management. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Pilditch. J.. 13th Edition

4 Calver. G. (2oo7). What is Packaging Design?. Switzerland: RotoVision.
1st Edition

5 Smith. P
R & Taylor. J.. (2oo4). “Packaging”. Marketing Communications. London.
543-574

 

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