Introduction form, 2015) in world 1.4 million and deaths

Introduction

Hydatidosis also known as Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) is a world
zoonotic parasitic disease. This tapeworm belonged to class of Cestoda, family
of Taeniidae and Echinococcus genus. The life cycle of this parasite is
completed between wild or domesticated carnivores and
different mammalian herbivores. In many countries’ dogs is a main definitive
host and adult parasitizes located in the small intestine. The eggs excreted in
the dog’s stool and immediately are contaminant for livestock, animals and
humans (John
et al. 2006). 
Infection with hydatid cyst in ruminants as intermediate host is very
common in Iran, this disease is a public health problems and high economic
losses on livestock breeding industry each year (Azami
et al. 2013; Ezatpour et al. 2015; Khanmohammadi M 2007; Oryan et al. 2012).  Echinococcosis scattering is widespread
throughout the world, but the most commonly endemic areas are the Mediterranean
countries, the Middle East, southern part of South America, Iceland, New
Zealand, Australia, southern parts of Africa, southern Russia; central Asia and
particularly china, Iran, and regions of Europe. Echinococcosis in the United
States is not endemic disease, but the significant increase in transcontinental
transportation and the change in the immigration models   over the half recent century have caused an
ascension in the index of this unusual diseases throughout in North America. (Wang
et al. 2013). The incidence of CE in endemic
areas ranges from 1-220 cases per 100,000 inhabitants and it is estimated
frequency of disease (cystic form, 2015) in world 1.4 million and deaths due to
disease 1.200 (Wang
2016a; Wang 2016b). The rate of parasite in stray
dogs shows a prevalence of 5% to 49% in different various regions of Iran and
the rate of human infection is 0.6-1.2/100000. (Rokni
2009). The cysts grow usually slowly,
and not diagnosed during this time unless to create clear clinical signs is
affected. CE is a disease of younger adults, with an average age at diagnosis
of 30-40 years, but in endemic area it may also be observed in the elderly with
an average age at diagnosis older than 50 years. Disease In dogs usually is
asymptomatic. The incubation period can be taken between 5 and 20 years, and is
various according to the location, type and severity of the lesions (John
et al. 2006). The symptoms of the disease
depend on the location of the cyst, the size of the cyst and the position of
the cyst. For example, it quickly signs up in the brain and the eye, while in
the liver it takes many years to make a mark. About 90% of the cysts are formed
in the lungs and the liver and can be enlarged if the cyst tissue around is
soft. The most organs involved are lung, liver,
spleen, bone, kidney, heart, brain respectively. Lung and liver cysts are more
common. Symptoms of this disease include abdominal pain, shortness of breath,
dry coughing, secondary infections after cyst tearing in the internal organs
and anaphylaxis. Sometimes, these cysts increase to a degree in the liver,
which can lead to liver failure. Which, if left untreated, leads to death. Surgery of hydatid cysts is the only basic treating way
for this disease in humans but sometimes due to the spread of
cysts in different organs of the body or the presence of cysts in a sensitive
and dangerous area, access and surgery are difficult.

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