Inclusive barriers which impede it (physical, psychological and formative).

Inclusive Entrepreneurship

 

 

 

Preamble

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Inclusive Mentor/Coach

         An inclusive mentor/coach is a person who takes care of himself, takes care of his/her mentee/coachee relationships and takes care of his/her mentee/coachee surroundings. This is done through listening deeply the needs of the world around them, designing new relationships and possible conversations or creating spaces from the emotional point of view.

         Usually, the PwD are perceived like second class citizens in the place of work because of a combination of factors, between which we can include inferior formative levels, as well as a series of prejudices, that provoke the people with disability do not work and those that do it are working in low specialized jobs with lower salaries and poor recognition.

         With frequency, this is due to the people with disability are seen as not prepared for the work and generally don´t get the opportunity to show the contrary. Other reasons are that, often, the people with disability haven´t had access to formation and/or to professional training.

         In conclusion, the people with disability result to be candidates very valid for the companies and self-employment once we break the barriers which impede it (physical, psychological and formative).

         The Social Model of the Disability called already Model of Independent Life transforms “the individual problem of the disability” in the “social problem of the disability”, a question of ethical and philosophical character: the “disability” pass from being “a private fact” to be “a social fact” in definite, the disability acquire moral status, it is an ethical question.

         To create something by them, to assume their own life, to be a collaborative part in the Society, are some of the ideas that people with disability need to assume and interiorized.

         They same are extraneous to concepts that have to revolutionize his life and carry them to the entrepreneurship. The mentoring/coaching to the entrepreneurship is a way to help people with disability to assume an independent life.

         Entrepreneurial coaching/mentoring can be a sufficiently customized way to help PwD to develop their entrepreneur skills. However, the usefulness remains to be verified. The purpose of this unit is to examine the importance of inclusive entrepreneurship, challenges for people with disabilities to become entrepreneurs as well as its benefits.

 

1/ Inclusive Entrepreneurship

 

1-1 Definitions of Inclusive Entrepreneurship

         Based on the analysis of scientific publications and other documents, it can be concluded that the entrepreneurship of people with disabilities can significantly contribute to the economic development of the country through the creation of new products and services, jobs and the rehabilitation of this social group. The growing number of people who own the companies shows that disabled people show entrepreneurial traits that effectively break social barriers and actively participate in economic processes by running their own businesses or other forms of economic activity.

         Entrepreneurship of people with disabilities is an important issue and challenge of contemporary societies, but at the same time a complex phenomenon in which the economic dimension is crucial, and on the other hand taking on the self-employed by disabled people and taking on the role of business owners is strongly culturally conditioned. Countries that give all enterprising citizens the opportunity and the necessary support to disclose and effectively exploit their opportunities are experiencing rapid economic growth. Therefore, exploiting the potential of entrepreneurship in people with disabilities is a source of increased prosperity for the various disadvantaged groups as well as for society as a whole.

         Inclusive entrepreneurship is in principle a new concept not only in the language, but also in the theory of entrepreneurship. This is the concept of including social groups excluded from the labor market and, more broadly, from the capitalist economy, which enables people in these groups to use their skills and competences to carry out their projects, not necessarily business but mainly business ventures.

         Inclusive entrepreneurship refers to the sociological concept of inclusion, but also to the economic conception of inclusion. Inclusive entrepreneurship provides equal opportunities for different social groups in fulfilling their aspirations and dreams, business and economic ventures, in other words equalizing opportunities  for entrepreneurship, so that these opportunities are for everyone.

            What is Inclusive Entrepreneurship? It is a term created at the University of Syracuse based on the successful program of action for entrepreneurship for people with disabilities and people with low incomes. The program has identified unique tools and processes that must beat the entrepreneur through a four-tier entrepreneurial model, with an emphasis on stage 1, which uses self-assessment tools to help beginners identify and pursue their passions, strengths and give them a business dimension.

         “Inclusive Entrepreneurship is a strategy and process that helps people with various disabilities and / or economic and social difficulties become entrepreneurs through business planning training, the use and development of business goals and support planning, and finally access to financial resources using partners or private resources operating within a consensus-based cooperation “.

Syracuse University Burton Blatt Institute/Whitman School of Management

 

         Another definition: “It is entrepreneurship that contributes to social inclusion, to give all people an equal opportunities to start up and operate businesses. Target groups are those who are disadvantage and under-represented in entrepreneurship and self-employment, including youth, women, seniors, ethnic minorities and immigrants, disabled people and many other groups”.

 http://www.oecd.org/cfe/leed/inclusive-entrepreneurship.htm

 

          And a last definition: “Self?employment for people with disabilities is both challenging and exciting. It is a positive challenge for people with disabilities who hope to have more income, become included in their communities, and improve the quality of their lives with family and friends. It is challenging for human service professionals who must move in this direction, but the reward is achieving successful outcomes for their clients.”

     Alice Weiss Doyel

 

1-2 Importance of Inclusive Entrepreneurship

            Based on data from the Central Statistical Office, it can be concluded that people with disabilities are far less economically active than people without disabilities. Occupational inactivity and poor business activity of this social group are due, among other things, to the lack of knowledge of the problems of this environment, the social anxiety of persons who are not functioning properly, the cultural and civilizational backlashes, the stereotypes and prejudices of the environment, and the mental barriers inherent in the disabled people themselves. A large part of these people can work professionally or even run their own business or company if they receive adequate support and substantive help. Unfortunately, due to psychological and external barriers, physically disabled people are not always ready to take on such a challenge.

         Professional activity of people with dysfunction is a basic and key way to improve their economic status or social image by changing the perception of the disabled person by the environment. It allows them to be treated not by the prism of inefficient bodies, but as persons with specific competences or abilities and  having the same needs, rights and duties as others. The attractiveness of professional activity is not only on improving the economic status by increasing income, but above all, creating the possibility of psychosocial self-realization.

         Self-employement or own business ensures independence and increased autonomy in personal and social life. It is about the ability to realize the interests and passions of life, as well as making decisions and knowingly directing one’s own life. The work properly suited to professional predispositions, abilities and competences and the type of qualifications gives satisfaction, meets the needs of social utility and usefulness, increases the sense of value and stabilizes self-esteem. Enterprising people with disabilities regain their confidence, they can without fear and shame to live actively in their environment. The above arguments indicate that entrepreneurial activation of people with disabilities may be an important instrument to counteract social exclusion of this group.

         Promoting inclusive entrepreneurship constitutes an important part of the Lisbon agenda and the Europe 2020 strategy which treats entrepreneurship as a key component of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth.

            Inclusive Entrepreneurship offers the ability for individuals and families to achieve economic independence and stability, contributes to social inclusion to give all people an equal opportunity run businesses. Target groups are those who are disadvantage and under-represented in entrepreneurship and self-employment, including youth, women, seniors, ethnic minorities and immigrants, disabled people and many other groups. By improving employment outcomes for people with disability will provide significant benefits to workplaces, the economy, the community and individuals themselves. Employment can provide people with disability with increased income, and with this, higher living standards and financial independence.

         Moreover it can contribute to a sense of identity and self-worth and have positive health impacts for some people with disability. Inclusive entrepreneurship outcomes for people with disability can also reduce demand on welfare systems.

 

1-3 Social economy and challenges for PwD regarding entrepreneurship

         Social economy is one of many ways to define an economic activity that combines social and economic goals. It is also referred to social economy or social entrepreneurship.

         The concept of social economy is very broad and affects many spheres of social life. However, trying to find a common denominator, we can say that the key principle of this idea is the primacy of action for the people (members and dependents) over the maximization of profit. This means that the social economy entities important – next to the economic – has a social mission. Thus, the social economy, meeting the needs of its members or dependents, often perform tasks, which neither the state nor the other operators do not comply sufficiently effective.

         Social economy, based on the values of solidarity, participation and self-government, plays a key role in local social development. It allows the use of human resources in a complementary way to the private and public sectors, prevents social exclusion and alleviates social tensions. In broad terms: the social economy supports the process of building civil society.

         Social economy also corresponds to the priorities of the European Union: social cohesion, full employment and the fight against poverty, participatory democracy, better governance and sustainable development.

         In considering the implications and likely support requirements of disabled people who choose to enter into entrepreneurship we first need to explore the concept itself.

         In the past it’s fair to say that society perceived entrepreneurship as slightly outside mainstream business activities and associated it with risk compared with the once traditional “job for life” approach to career pathways.

            There is a greater acceptance in terms of the risks associated with entrepreneurship, less stigma associated with business failure and more of recognition and articulated perfectly by Richard Branson that failure is an acceptable and inevitable risk in business “Every person, and especially every entrepreneur, should embrace failure with open arms. It is only through failure that we learn. Many of the world’s finest minds have learned this the hard way”

         We are it could be said in the age of the entrepreneur as more and more people shun the conventional ties of mainstream employment sometimes out of necessity in response to the lack of available jobs but increasingly in response to an aspiration and a drive to create a product, have a social impact or create a legacy with an increasing emphasis on social entrepreneurship than the more traditional business model.

         Entrepreneurs are considered to have vision, determination, be great leaders and innovators.

         The difference between a disabled entrepreneur and their non disabled peer is they start from a position of disadvantage and will need support to achieve equality of access to the opportunities that entrepreneurship can bring.

Areas of practical support:

         These will not differ greatly from those required in mainstream employment, they will however be required to utilise in a flexible and responsive manner in line with the disabled persons aspirations & business priorities in the current global economy.

         We can no longer accept situations where disabled entrepreneurs are not supported effectively because of ineffective systems or lack of understanding or an unwillingness to put the simple measures in place that make it possible.

         It needs to be an appreciation of entrepreneurship as a real option for disabled people and a recognition of the creative support that needs to be put into place to achieve this, including access to finance (to remove the current situation which just sets people up to fail or deems them ineligible).

 

1-4 Work based learning and its function

         Learning at work is an important aspect of adult learning. Employees have the opportunity to update their knowledge, skills and competences, acquire new skills and increase their employability. Workplace learning benefits both employees and employers as it contributes to increased competitiveness and productivity.

https://ec.europa.eu/epale/pl

         Learning in the workplace is a necessity today, almost a duty. As emphasized by Dr Anna Lubra?ska from the University of Lodz, “… the condition for optimal functioning (at work and in everyday life) has been constant learning, cognitive engagement, and improvement. Learning enables individuals to maintain and strengthen their professionalism, self-steering, a greater awareness of themselves, their rights, privileges and their role in the environment, the possibility of impact on the environment. Continuing lifelong learning is simply a necessity in today’s reality, while being a contemporary realization of the thought that (…) a person learns all his life “. Adult education through institutional education, training and self-teaching activity forms, perfect professional qualifications and competence of employees present and future. Professional vocational education currently carries out several functions. These are as follows:

·         Adaptive function – related to the adaptation of the employee to new jobs emerging in connection with technical and technological progress.

·         Compensation function – professional training should be undertaken by all those who need to supplement knowledge because of a change in position within the organization.

·         Renovation function – that is to educate people who come back to work after a long break, need to update their knowledge and skills.

·         Reconstruction function – resulting from the fact that the modern world requires mobility and flexibility from the people, forcing the reconstruction of subjective possibilities and habits.

·         Creation function – the increasing popularity of work organization based on the functioning of the teams results in an increased need to improve creative thinking,

 

Based on; Adult education in the aspect of professional development and realities of the contemporary labor market, Anna Lubra?ska – University of Lodz. http://cejsh.icm.edu.pl/cejsh/element/bwmeta1.element.desklight-9096618b-a01b-4d9e-a71d-fcbef7a840cf

 

1-5 Recomendations for an Inclusive Entrepreneurship

         Entrepreneurship is a way of life and a collection of qualities through which we achieve our goals, often associated with the achievement of measurable profit. Can entrepreneurship be learned? Of course, it can be, but it is not easy and requires the candidate’s consequences, sacrifices and systemic support on many levels.

How to do it? Here are some key recommendations:

·         Promotion of entrepreneurship culture among people with disabilities and the fight against stereotypes

·         Multi-level tools and support services in the area of business financing

·         Training, curricula tailored to the needs of this social group and labor market needs

·         Promotion of role models, disabled people who have been successful in business

·         Different forms of individual support for the disabled, such as training vouchers, assistant services and work trainers, individual funding for job placement and transport to the workplace should be increased. On the larger scale, there should be available work coaches and recruited mentors from the companies.

         Mentoring, training or early learning in the workplace and more are some of the tools needed to help  people transform their ideas into action, even though entrepreneurship is about learning by doing.

 

1-6 Role of the technology

         An individual’s decision for the path of self-employment is influenced by different factors. One factor is simply put the calculation of opportunity costs (Arum and Müller 2004). For example, if the benefits of  being  unemployed  or  being  employed  are  higher  than  benefits  of  self-employment,  a  decision  towards  self-employment  will  probably  not  be  made.  Another factor is the degree of independence which positively correlates with the likelihood of self-employment (Shane, A. S. 2003). But the most important factor for becoming self-employed might be self-motivation, as it is the driver which results from factors like opportunity costs or independence (Wickham 2006).

         Disabled   people   are   often disadvantaged to handle a complex situation like self-employment. The task is much more difficult for disabled  people  and  in  some  cases  even  impossible  compared  to  people  without  disabilities.  Due to their disability they lack specific capabilities e.g. visual or mobile capabilities which aggravate self-employment. In many cases disabled people don’t possess the required skills for self-employment  as  their  education  is  substandard  (National  organisation  on  disability  2004). 

         This  handicap  can  easily  decline  self-motivation  and  further  lead  to damaged  self-esteem. Under these conditions self-employment experience is much more unlikely. To increase the self-employment of disabled people it is  therefore necessary  to  preserve  self-motivation  and  self-esteem  by  diminishing  disadvantages  for  people with disabilities.

            Technology is an important factor for disabled people to achieve and maintain self-motivation and self-esteem and to participate in social environment (Sans-Bobi, M.A. et al. 2012).

            Assistive technologies (AT), accessible websites and accessible applications enable disabled people to be part of the society (Seelman, K. D. 2008). For example, artificial limbs, retina implants or screen readers, which enhance inclusion and self-esteem, establish important conditions for disabled people to start a business.

         Moreover, technology is a crucial factor for starting a business today. Using state-of-the-art technologies like computer systems, including software and hardware, or manufacturing processes is essential to compete in today’s global landscape.

         Yet people with disabilities like physical or cognitive impairments often are limited regarding these capabilities, even if they have a high education. In most cases this is due to inappropriate technologies that do not meet the requirements of people with disabilities.

         Therefore, the efficient utilization of technology is often not possible for disabled people. This means people with disabilities have disadvantages to obtain independent individuality (individual person perspective) as well as necessary information for self-employment (information society perspective) and to vanquish barriers to organise their business in a competitive manner (business organisational perspective).To strengthen the self-employment of disabled people it is therefore indispensable to provide AT to them.

         It’s important to figure out what your strengths and weakness are. If you enjoy taking risks and are self-motivated, disciplined and resilient, becoming an entrepreneur might be a great choice. On the flip side, if you are the kind of person who values structure and stability, and you shy away from risk, you might prefer working as an employee.

         As you look to the future, keep an open mind about the path your career may take. You could find fulfilling work as an employee at an existing company or you could start your own business and blaze your own trail. So many options are open to you! It’s OK to be a little unsure and excited all at the same time.

         In order to enhance the start-up rate within the European Union and to offer adequate conditions for conducting business projects, four key issues have been identified as the four steps out of social exclusion.

·         Generate an entrepreneurial culture within a corresponding framework.

·         Availability of target group specific professional start-up support and trainings.

·         Professional support during the consolidation and growth period of young businesses.

·         Access to adequate finance.

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