In medical applications, biomedical fields, engineering, electronics, and environmental

In recent decades, nanoparticles (NPs) have been
investigated for various biomedical applications and they have been
reported to be the ”material of the 21st century” because of their
unique designs and property combinations compared with conventional materials 1 – 2. There is a wide range of applications of
NPs such as in human health appliances, industrial fields, medical
applications, biomedical fields, engineering, electronics, and environmental
studies 1 -7.

Basically, many benefits when using nanoparticles offers
are proved over other drug delivery systems 2. Several advantages of them
could be told as enhancing the solubility of highly hydrophobic drugs;
providing sustained and controlled release of encapsulated drugs; intensifying
the stability of therapeutic agents by chemical or physical means; targeted
treatments when modified with cell-specific ligands 2. Among all of the nanomaterials, variety of metallic
nanoparticles have considered as the foremost attention due to their useful
application to various fieldss of science and technology 1 – 7. The most
widely used delegate of metallic NPs is silver
nanoparticles (AgNPs) because of their highly effective
antibacterial activity both in solution and in components, AgNPs have gained
popularity in industrial sectors including textiles, food, consumer products,
medicine. 3 – 12

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AgNPs (ranging in size from ~1 -100 nm) can be prepared
with many methods: (i) chemical synthesis, (ii) physical dispersion, (iii)
photochemical synthesis, and (iv) biological synthesis 9. Lately, Zhang et
al. has reported on three multistep methods used to prepare silver
nanostructures with well-controlled shapes: (i) double reductant method, (ii)
etching technique, and (iii) construction of core-shell nanostructures. These
nanoparticles had excellent optical properties 10. Hiep et al. has studied
that using microwave-assisted synthesis of chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol/AgNPs
gels matrix without using any reducer make AgNPs exhibited a spherical shape sizes
oranged from 3 to 19 nm and those gels have good biocompatibility and safety to
be used for wound
applications 5.

However, the use
of AgNPs carries a series of unpredictable concerns regarding their interaction
with biological systems 13 – 14. Several studied has suspected the negative
effects of the strong oxidative activity of AgNPs releasing silver ions with biological
systems by inducing cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, immunological responses, and
even cell death 15 – 18. Therefore, the profuse applications of AgNPs raise
concerns about human exposure, because they can easily pass through the blood
brain barrier by transcytosis of capillary endothelial cells or into other
critical areas or tissues 19.

Obviously, human
became at risks induced by exposure to nanoparticles (NPs; diameter


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