In [e] is sometimes pronounced by the subjects as

In this section discusses the potentially different pronunciation of English vowel sounds by Madurese students who are taking English as their major and the effect of mispronunciation of the words. This section is divided into three subchapters: The general result of analysis of pronunciation of English vowel sounds by Madurese students (3.1), the difficult English sounds for Madurese speakers (3.2), and the possible reason for mispronunciation by Madurese students (3.3)

 

1.1  The General Result of English Vowel Sound Pronunciation by Madurese Students

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From the analysis of the phonetic transcription from the data recordings of English vowel sounds pronunciation by the subjects. The analysis shows that from the 12 English vowel sounds, there are 4 sounds that are pronounced correctly by the subjects, those are i: in the final position, I in the initial position, u: in the final position and  ?: in the middle position,  and 8 sounds that have been mispronounced in the initial, middle, and final position, those are e, U, o, ?:, æ, ?, ?, and ?:.1.      Vowel i: is pronounced correctly by the subjects when it occurs in the final position, but it is sometimes pronounced as e, I, and even æ when it occurs in the initial and middle position, as in est, Ist, and æst.2.      Vowel I is pronounced correctly by the subjects when it occurs in the initial and middle position, but is sometimes pronounced as n and s when it occurs in the final position, as in taIn and tIns.3.       Vowel e is sometimes pronounced by the subjects as I and æ when it occurs in the initial and middle position as in Int?rtaIn, Int?rteIn, Int?teIn, IterteIn, InsteIn, ænt?tæn, led, lId and laId.4.      Vowel u: is pronounced correctly by the subjects when it occurs in the final position, but it is sometimes pronounced as ou when it occurs in the medial position as in poul.5.      Vowel U is sometimes pronounced by the subjects as a when it occurs in the middle position as in pat, and pronounced as o when it occurs in the final position, as in boro.6.      Vowel o is sometimes pronounced by the subjects as a when it occurs in the initial position as in ab?Ikt, and pronounced as U when it occurs in the medial position as in bUks.7.      Vowel ?: is sometimes pronounced by the subjects as æ when it occurs in the middle position as in kæt and pronounced as o and æ when it occurs in the final position, as in  f?:(r) and fæ(r).8.       Vowel æ is sometimes pronounced by the subjects as ?, a, and e when it occurs in the initial position as amatir, amatur, amat?r, ?mæt?, ?mætu:, and emet?r and pronounced as I, el, a, and æ when it occurs in the medial position, as in pIn, peIn, pan, p?æn, and pæn.9.       Vowel ?: is pronounced correctly by the subjects when it occurs in the middle position, but it is sometimes pronounced as au when it occurs in the initial position as in au(r) and pronounced as au, ou,  and o in final position as in lau, lou, and lo.10.   Vowel ? is sometimes pronounced by the subjects as a when it occurs in the initial position as in amont, as o and I when it occurs in the medial position as in pIlot, p?allot, and pIlt, and a when it occurs in the final position as in h?:nia, henia and hærnia.11.   Vowel ? is pronounced by the subjects as a when it occurs in the initial position and medial position, as in and?stænd, and?rstænd, bat, and bats.12.   Vowel ?: is sometimes pronounced by the subjects as e when it occurs in the initial position as in et, as u: when it occurs in the medial position as in bu:n, and as ?:, ?, and a as in fa:(r), f?r, and fan. 3.1      The Difficult English Vowel Sounds for Madurese SpeakersThe discussion on the sound inventory of English and Madurese shows that these two languages have some different vowel sounds. From the analysis of the pronunciation of the 12 English vowel sounds by Madurese students, there are 2 vowel sounds that the subjects find difficulties in pronunciation those are ? and e. Further explanation based on the difficult position of English vowel sounds, it is divided into four parts:1.      The diffcult sound in initial positionThe difficult sound in initial is e sound. The difficulty may be due to the fact that Madurese does not have the sound e but surprisingly, the sound e can be pronounced correctly in initial and middle position. It may be influenced by the subjects second language or the national language, Bahasa Indonesia, which has that sound.2.      The difficult sound in middle position? sound just found in the middle position and it is difficult to be pronounced by Madurese students. It may be because of its inexistence of ? sound in both Madurese and the second language, Bahasa Indonesia, and the subjects pronunciation, they change that sound into a more familiar and similar sound of their language. 3.      The difficult sound in the final positionThe difficult sound in the final position is ? sound. The difficulty may be due to the fact that Madurese does not have the ? sound. but the subject can pronounced ? sound correctly in initial and middle position.4.      The difficult sounds in all three positionsThe sound ? is difficult to pronounced in all position. The ? sound do not exist in both the subjects language and the national language, therefore, the subjects pronounce ? sound which have close pronunciation. 3.2      Possible Causes of Mispronunciation of the English Vowel sounds by Madurese SpeakersIt has been common that second or foreign language learners of English may face some difficulties in pronunciation, including the subjects under examination. These native madurese speakers have some difficulties in pronouncing English voel sounds correctly. The difficulty may be traced back to some characteristics ot the subjects first language or mother tongue and the non-existence of similar sounds as those found in the English sound inventory. The following points are some possible features that cause mispronunciation of English sound by the subjects.First, the subjects mispronounce some English vowel sounds because they identify the difficult sounds with the nearest sounds in Madurese. The mother tongue of the subjects and the national language of Indonesian may have influenced the subjects in pronouncing English vowel sounds. They may try to pronounce the difficult English sounds like they pronounce the close sounds in there mother tongue and Indonesian. For example ? sound, more than 80% of the subjects pronunce this sound as a sound because they habitually pronunce ? as a when they learn in school and do not change how to pronunce it correctly. This may be influenced by the almost similar spelling and pronunciation in both Madurese and Indonesian. Also the sound e, more than 50% of the subjects pronounce this sound as i sound because they think ‘e’ letter should always be pronounced as i in English sound, while actually it can be pronounced as e.Second, some of the English vowel sounds do not exist in Madurese. There are two English vowel sounds that do not exist in Madurese language. Those are ? and e. These sounds will not be pronounced correctly by the subjects without proper practice of pronunciation.Third, lack of proper practice for correct pronunciation of English vowel sounds. From the writer personal communication with the subjects, the writer learns that the subjects has took phonology and pronunciation class in the previous semester. Yet, they expressed their difficulties in understanding and practice the correct pronunciation of words in agreement with the IPA system. They also expressed their reluctance in learning and practicing further after they passed pronunciation and phonology class. This may be one of the reason that some of them cannot pronounce the English sounds that do not exist in their mother tongue correctly.

 

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