In by the racial and ethnic while substantive representation

In the following essay, I will be discussing the difference between descriptive and substantive representation a how the United States tried to expand both descriptive and substantive representation through the drawing of majority-minority districts. Also, I will talk about how the drawing of the district’s boundaries is a voting rights issue. I will also identify the foundational pieces of legislation and judicial cases on this issue. As well as why there is a requirement to show a photo identification card before being allowed to vote a voting rights issue. Also as part of this essay I will compare and contrast he current state voting with the current state of campaign finance regulation. I will also explain how social movement activity can be an effective form of political participation to obtain public policies that the majority favors and some of the obstacles social movements must overcome to be an effective voice for the majority. To start my essay, I will first be discussing the difference between descriptive and substantive representation and then how the United States tried to expand both descriptive and substantive representation through the drawing of majority-minority districts. ¬†Descriptive representation is the representing constituents by mirroring their personal, political relevant characteristics and substantive representation is representation of the interest groups. It is also belief that constituents are more effectively represented by legislators who are similar to them in such key demographic characteristics as race, gender, ethnicity, or religion. So now that we now the difference between descriptive and substantive representation, we need to now look at how the united states tried to expand both descriptive and substantive representation through the drawing of majority-minority districts. The United States tried to expand both descriptive and substantive representation. They tried to expand descriptive representation by packing and cracking and by the racial and ethnic while substantive representation tried to expand it because of the “politics as use” that means when black representative is elected has a positive impact on white Americans. The drawing of district boundaries on voting rights is an issue because the district lines deny minority voters an equal opportunity to participate in the political process and to elect representatives of their choice. Packing is redistricting in which partisan voters are concentrated in a single district to minimize the number of elections they can influence in other districts and cracking is redistricting to break up a certain group; takes away power from the group. Also, Allen v State Board of Elections (1969), 1982 Amendments to the Voting Rights Act, Thornburg v Gingles (1986), and Miller v Johnson (1995) contribute to the struggle of district boundaries a voting rights. In the case of Allen v State Board of Elections (1969) the right to vote can be affected by dilution of voting power. The Voting Rights Act is interpreted as stating that In those states meeting the criteria in Section 4 of the Voting Rights Act, law changes affecting the dilution of minority voting are NOT covered by the Voting Rights Act in the case of Thornburg v Gingles (1986) Supreme Court held that a challenge to a reapportionment plan could be based on “vote dilution effect.”, and in the case of and Miller v Johnson (1995) Race cannot be the sole or predominant factor in redrawing legislative district boundaries and finally, in the 1982 Amendments to the Voting Rights Act, changed the minority representation in the congress more minority representation in congress.I will now be moving on to the second part of my essay where I will be discussing why there is a requirement to show a photo identification card before being allowed to vote a voting rights issue. In the United States, there is a law that requires a person to provide some form of official identification before that are allowed to register to vote. The Political Purpose and Prevalence of Voter ID Laws comes from these two cases, Crawford v Marion County Election Board and Dissent in Ruthelle Frank et al v Scott Walker (2014) – 7th Circuit Court of Appeals. In the first case of, Crawford v Marion County Election Board where the state passed a law that required all the voters to show a photo Identification card by the united states or the state of Indiana but some people including the democratic party argued that it was violating the constitution; the right to vote but the supreme court ruled that the law was not unconstitutional and did not violate the voters right to vote rather it put the voters in place in order to prevent voter fraud. The second case was Dissent in Ruthelle Frank et al v Scott Walker (2014) – 7th Circuit Court of Appeals, where ACLU filed a law suit challenging Wisconsin’s voter identification laws in result it was unconstitutional in violating of the voting rights Act.Transitioning to the third part of my essay I will be comparing and contrast the current state of voting (photo identification, purging of voting rolls) with the current state of campaign finance regulation. In Texas, the voter identification law has been under legal challenge since 2001. In Texas, the law requires voter to present a government issued photo Identification or any other form of ID. The voter must be eighteen years of old, be a united states citizen, b a resident of the county where the application is submitted, not be a felony or be convicted if so they have to have completed jail sentence, probation or parole. As for Texas campaign finance regulations govern the following: how much money candidates may receive from individuals and organizations, how much and how often they must report those contributions, and how much individuals, organizations and political parties may contribute to campaigns.The final part in my essay I will be talking about how social movement activity be an effective form of political participation to obtain public policies that the majority favors, and what are some of the hurdles social movements must overcome to be an effective voice for the majority. Political participation is action that influences the distribution of social goods and values. One way social movement activity can be an effective form of political participation is by voting. ¬†People vote for representatives, who make policies that will determine how much they have to pay in taxes and who will benefit from social programs. Some of the hurdles social movements must overcome to be an effective voice for the majority are mass media but social movements are most effective when they rely on multiple framings.In conclusion of my essay I’ve stated the differences between descriptive and substantives representation and how the united states tried to expand both descriptive and substantive representation through the drawing of majority-minority districts as well as the issues relating with the drawing of district boundaries on voting rights. To support my conclusions, I used judicial cases on this issue. I also compare and contrast the current state of voting for example, photo identification, purging of voting rolls with the current state of campaign finance regulation. And finally, I talked about how social movement activity be an effective form of political participation to obtain public policies that the majority favors, and what are some of the hurdles social movements must overcome to be an effective voice for the majority.

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