In September of the same year, the dead body of Aylan Kurdi, who wanted to migrate to Canada with her family, washed up on the coast and the inhumane treatment to the Syrians wanting to migrate to Europe, once again showed the tragic state of the human dimension of the Syrian crisis. As news about these events took place in the media, the EU tried to establish a policy for Syrian asylum seekers. However, the basic motivation of European countries is focused on finding a solution to the problem before the Syrians come to Europe. In response to the multifaceted challenges posed by the refugee crisis, the EU Commission developed the European Agenda on Migration in 2015. EU migration policy as formulated in the Agenda is based on three main pillars: cooperation with countries of transit countries, border management and a common asylum policy. However, the EU’s policies for illegal immigrants have also prevented refugees and asylum-seekers from safely reaching the “European Castle”. The closure of European borders in the fight against illegal immigration has also resulted in the questioning of the EU’s human rights claim. Because asylum is one of the most fundamental rights that protected by the international law and is the right that every EU country recognizes and guarantees. To recognize these rights from one side and to prevent them from being used from the other side obviously does not conform to the nature of human rights concept.3.1. Cooperation with Third or Transit Countries The refugee policies developed by the European Union are basically as follows: preventive policies “that prevent illegal immigrants from reaching EU borders by creating” buffer zones “beyond their borders to stop illegal migration movements to the extent possible. In other words, it seems that the EU is in search of a host country for the refugees rather than himself. This policy, carried out on behalf of the externalization of the problem, is not only aimed at keeping illegal immigration movements away from their borders, but at the same time, as another step of this policy the EU sends illegal immigrants back to their countries or buffer zone with readmission agreements mainly made for visa facilitation. In this context, readmission agreements, both important and effective tools for combating illegal migration, constitute one of the EU policies as a product of preventative politics.3.2. Protection of the External Borders The Schengen Area was established in 1995, aiming to create a borderless zone to move freely inside the Union countries. Contrary to the Schengen Area, Dublin Regulation of 2013 have been approved by EU and Article10 of the Regulation stated that if a person seeking asylum is found to have come from a third country illegally through the borders of a member state, the member state that has crossed the border will be responsible for the examination of the asylum application. In other words, if illegal immigrants from such as Greece and Spain are caught in such as Germany and Sweden, then these countries have the right to return these persons to Greece or Spain. Accordingly, the main priority of the European Union countries is not to accept more refugees, but rather to keep migrants in safe third countries with more effective border controls.3.3. The Common European Asylum System within the EU Another policy developed by Europe was to transfer member countries’ immigration, asylum and asylum policies to the EU level in order to create a common system. In this respect, differences arising from different legal arrangements among member countries were removed. These arrangements prevented member countries from offering different opportunities for asylum seekers and prevented asylum applicants from filing a new application for asylum in another EU member after they were rejected in a member country. There are two major organizations in the EU that provide coordination between member countries on immigration and asylum. The first is the European Asylum Support Office, established in 2010, which provides support for the establishment of a common system of asylum among member states. The second is Frontex, which was set up in 2005 and is responsible for coordinating the member states’ borders protection of the EU.The Universal Declaration of Human Rights has been regarded as the foundation of international human rights law, and Article 14 (I) of it states that ‘everyone has the right to seek and enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution’ . This implies that all people have the right to asylum in any other places. However, the main policy of the European Union towards the Syrian asylum crisis has been to try to limit Syrian asylum seekers to neighboring countries to Syria. In this framework, it meets the needs of the Syrians in neighboring countries and tries to prevent migration to third countries. In other words, the EU is trying to solve this problem by developing cooperation with transit countries that are not members of the Union. In this context, EU felt the need to cooperate Turkey and other neighboring countries when the problem has reaches their borders. To encourage more effective policies on stopping the asylum-seeking refugee flow to Europe, he promised to Ankara to provide economic aid as well as progress in the EU accession process. Giving signals for the opening the new negotiations chapters with Turkey is important to show the fear of the EU countries about the Syrian asylum seekers. Within this policy framework, the EU has undertaken initiatives to improve human rights, along with humanitarian aid, to neighboring countries. It is also possible to see these benefits as a measure against asylum seekers that threaten internal security. But, all these benefits are ineffective in terms of improving the poor conditions in the recipient countries. Because, the European Union (EU) has announced at the end of March 2017, only 908m euros were paid which were supposed to commit 3 billion euros for Syrian refugees in return the readmission agreement with Turkey.
August 17, 2019 0 Comments