Ideologies non-humans should be taken into consideration. In this

Ideologies emerge as a
reaction to the crises. Just like other ideologies, Green ideology is born as a
reaction and response to environmental problems in 1970s although the origin of
the ideology goes back to much earlier.

To begin with, it would
be of essence to shed light on the meaning of green ideology. Green political
thought differs from mainstream ideologies by bringing new concepts into
political thought such as its anti-anthropocentric stance which means that the
Greens advocate the rights of non-human world. All other ideologies regard the
nature in instrumental terms i.e. the nature is something which should be used
and taken advantage of appropriately for the needs of human-beings. However
green political thinkers oppose this kind of reasoning and they argue that
human and non-human worlds are inseparable from each other and rights of
non-humans should be taken into consideration. In this paper I would dwell upon
the possibilities of green political theory within democracy models.

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Democracy has become the
norm today in many countries around the globe and all ideologies including the
greens associate their cause with democracy. However, this was not always the
case. The early green thinkers such as Hardin and Heilbroner held that green
ideals could merely be achieved within an authoritarian government. At the time
the so-called limit discourse was popular arguing that basically human
population increase geometrically whereas food and natural resources increase
arithmetically. Therefore an imminent action was necessary and democracy was
without doubt not a good way to accomplish this since democracy requires
procedures and they had no time for procedures.

Nevertheless, limit
discourse has lost popularity and sustainability discourse started to emerge as
a more plausible variation which argued that democracy and green political
theory are compatible with each other. And yet the discussion topic shifted
from compatibility of green political thought and democracy to which model of
democracy is appropriate for the green goals. Many green thinkers are of the
opinion that liberal western style representative democracy does not serve the
purpose of the Greens because of various factors. Our four-five years term
elective representation systems cause a huge obstacle since politicians are
interested in short-run policies, however, green political agenda offers long-term
programs. Consequently it will be more difficult to get votes as many people do
not have the possibility to care the issues with regard to environment or
future generations but rather how they are going to pay their credit card debts
etc. This is also related to the structures of societies i.e. the schools, mass
media etc. they all shape the thoughts and perceptions of people so that they
become unavoidably as a part of liberal economy as Gramsci put it much earlier.

Due to the difficulties
within representative democracy most green parties from Australia to Germany
adopted the idea of grassroot democracy which requires active participation of
all citizens (even all residents at local level) in the decision-making
process. By doing so they aim to reduce the influence of lobbyists because even
though every citizen has the same suffrage rights, some groups exert more
influence on governments which affects undoubtedly decision-making process that
would undermine the meaning of democracy. Thanks to the recent developments in
technology it is possible for all people to take part in political decisions directly.
It is worth mentioning that the greens have more chance to realise their goals
within this model of democracy, however, it is not certain if the decisions
would be green friendly. As another option John Drzyek came up with the discursive
(green) democracy model which would be definitely more suitable for green
political goals. Firstly discursive democracy should be pluralistic which means
that it should emphasize the necessity to communicate across different channels
without erasing the difference. Secondly discursive democracy should be
reflexive in its questioning orientation to established traditions. Moreover,
discursive democracy should be transnational in its capacity to extend across
state boundaries, ecological in terms of openness to communication with
non-human world (Dryzek, 2000). In addition to this, a different approach has
been suggested by Dobson which requires to elect proxy representatives to
represent the interests of future generations and the non-human world in
national and transnational level.

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