Human So they are called mesenchymal stem cells ,

Human fetal membranes (placenta , umbilical cord, and Amniotic membrane )  are become a main sources of stem cells after it was a considered as a medical wastes , where have a three types of those cells : Hematopoietic Stem Cells  ( HSCs) ,  Mesenchymal Stem Cells  ( MSCs) and Endothelial stem cells ( ESCs) (Sadler, 2010; Hui, 2012; Pollheimer & Knofler,2012;Carlson,2013). MSCs are a type from multipotent stem cells where have a capacity to differentiate into specialized cells developing from mesodermal such as osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes  . So they are called mesenchymal stem cells  , addition to contribute to the regeneration of the different tissues via differentiate into ectodermal and endodermal lineages (Sadler, 2010) . hMSCs present in fetal and adult tissues of different sources such as cartilage, ligament , tendon, adipose tissue , peripheral blood and fetal membranes ( Placenta , Umbilical cord  , Amniotic fluid and Amniotic membrane  ) which also know as  fetal stem cells (FSCs) . MSCs shown the plastic adherence properties and self-renewable,  migration capacity , immunomodulatory features, easily accessible and culturally expandable in vitro with exceptional genomic stability .  All these characteristics make it attractive in cell therapy, regenerative medicine and tissue repairment (Guttmacher, Maddox, and Spong, 2014) .  But , MSCs in all those  sources   ” not immortal ”  and affected by the aging process  .  Aging are changes that are associated with age which occur because of a progressive accumulation of deleterious changes in body via reduction of physiological and biological functions then increase the chance of disease and death (O’Sullivan and  Karlseder,2010). Telomeres are known act as a biomarker of aging where shorten with increasing age in humans and mice, and those cells with short telomeres cause cell senescence and this senescent cells may contribute to aging (Fajkus,Sykorova  and Leitch ,2005).

 

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