Hitler lived in Vienna from 1908 to 1913. He had grown up in a middle-class family, with relatively few contacts with Jewish people, in a place of the ¨Habsburg state in which many German nationalists had been disappointed that the German Empire founded in 1871 had not included the German-speaking regions of the Habsburg Monarchy¨ (“Adolf Hitler: Early Years, 1889–1913.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, n.d. Web. 19 May 2017.). Vienna was a place known for their ideologies, but not the country as a whole, more like the many famous people we are taught about today. It was a city filled with anti-Semitism and it wasn’t very diverse, which would immediately establish segregation and racism, or even just pure pride in their nationality that could be taken too far. This is the place where Hitler established his ideologies, he was rarely surrounded by Jews, so of course he wouldn’t necessarily trust them. It’s easy to understand, when someone is captivated by their surroundings, they are more than likely to follow what they know best. He had very great influences and it all started here in Vienna. According to the authors of “Adolf Hitler: Early Years, 1889–1913.”, Hitler was mainly influenced by two political ideologies found in Vienna. The first was the German racist nationalism propagated by the Upper Austrian Pan-German politician Georg von Schönerer. The second key influence was that of Karl Lueger, Mayor of Vienna from 1897 to his death in 1910. Born on 17 July 1842, Georg Ritter von Schönerer was an Austrian landowner and politician of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Time went on and he was elected Austria’s imperial parliament as a liberal representative. But as his career progressed, he became more and more of a German nationalist. He later broke away from his party because he had become almost completely against Jewish capitalism. He deemed that the Catholic and the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina were a betrayal of the German interest. He was even once imprisoned for a publication he made over his beliefs. In 1888, he was temporarily thrown in jail for destroying a Jewish-owned newspaper office and assaulting its employees for reporting the death of the admired German emperor Wilhelm I (Whiteside, A.). This action increased Schönerer’s popularity and helped members of his party get elected to the Austrian Parliament. Once he was released, he not only became more popular but also gained followers to his Pan- German Party. As a national political figure, he reached the climax of his influence in 1901, when 21 Pan-Germans were returned to the Reichsrat; his violence disrupted the party and by 1907 it had all but disappeared from Austrian parliamentary politics. Afterwards, he was not re-elected to the party until 1897. But that did not stop his followers, especially young Adolf Hitler. Hitler continued to follow him through everything. Schonerer had so much power that he was able to arrange the dismissal of Minister President Kasimir Felix Graf Badeni from office. Badeni had attempted to put a policy in place in order to prevent Germans from getting into positions of office simply because they didn’t speak the Czech language. Schönerer staged mass protests against the ordinance and disrupted parliamentary, actions which eventually caused Emperor Franz Joseph to dismiss Badeni. Schönerer founded the Los von Rom movement (which caused the conversion of all Roman Catholic German-speaking people of Austria to Lutheran Protestantism, or, in some cases, to the Old Catholic Churches) while the division of Imperial Germany was taking place. This also led to more power to him in addition to 21 members of his party gained seats in Parliament. However, his career came to an end and led his party to suffering as well. Yet none of this was strong enough to break down the philosophy, views and role as a great agitator he held that influenced Hitler. In 1895, Karl Lueger- the leader of a Christian social Party- won over the election to become mayor of Vienna with his authoritarian and anti-Semitic style of leadership, which Hitler also adopted later on. His views were clearly stated in one of his speeches, “Here in our Austrian fatherland the situation is such that the Jews have seized a degree of influence which exceeds their number and importance. (Interjection: ‘Very true!’) In Vienna the poor craftsman has to go begging on Saturday afternoon, to turn the labour of his hands to account, he has to beg at the Jewish furniture dealers. (‘Quite right!’) The influence on the masses, in our country, is in the hands of the Jews, the greater part of the press is in their hands, by far the largest part of all capital and, in particular, high finance, is in Jewish hands, and in this respect the Jews operate a terrorism of a kind that could hardly be worse. For us, in Austria, it is a matter of liberating Christian people from the hegemony of Jewry.” (Lueger,K.). Although he was elected in 1985, it wasn’t until 1987 that he was officially able to take his place as mayor, due to the number of reelections demanded by Emperor Franz Joseph because of his repeated refusals to accept him into office to due his radical anti-Semitism. But once he was placed in office, he really focused on the suburbs; brought streetcars, electricity, and gas under the city government; and developed parks and gardens, schools, and hospitals. Under his administration, Vienna became an efficient, modern metropolis. Lueger did many other things that would make you question his anti-Semitism, but it was apparent enough for Hitler to witness. Hitler moved to Vienna in 1908 and witnessed Lueger at his climax. He praised Lueger charisma and popular appeal in Mein Kampf, although Hitler’s own brand of anti-Semitism adhered more closely to the racial demagoguery. We still see the heavy influence that Lueger had on Hitler. Taking all what has been researched and interpreted into consideration, although Hitler did have his own ideas and ideologies, he was greatly influenced by his earlier years in Vienna, but to be more specific he was influenced to a great extent by what he found there in Vienna. Karl Lueger and Georg von Schönerer were very powerful people that Hitler fell to during that time. Hitler’s early years in this city really made an impact on his mind and made whatever he suspected stronger. This political ideology also contributed to the start of World War 2, when Hitler tries to make everyone “pay” for putting Germany-which he believed was superior- through the Treaty of Versailles.
July 22, 2019 0 Comments