The Arduino Uno is a micro-controller board based on
the ATmega328. It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as
PWM outputs), 6 Analog inputs, a 16 MHz ceramic resonator, a USB connection, a
power jack, and a reset button. Its software provides a number of libraries to
make programming the microcontroller easier.
Ultrasonic Sensors measure
distance by using ultrasonic waves. The sensor head emits an ultrasonic wave
and receives the wave reflected back from the target. Ultrasonic Sensors
measure the distance to the target by measuring the time between the emission
and reception. It has four pins GND, VCC, ECHO, TRIG. Through trig pin it sends
the ultrasonic wave and echo pin receive it when wave gets reflected back from
Ultrasonic sensor measure the distance by following
of sound * time taken)
fig. ULTRASONIC SENSOR
An IR sensor works for object detection,
edge detection etc. It consists of IR emitter LED and an IR Photodiode,
together they are called as Photo – Coupler or Opto – Coupler. When the IR
transmitter emits radiation, it reaches the object and some of the radiation reflects
back to the IR receiver. When IR receiver receives the rays, LED glows. Thus we
can detect object as well as edge.
fig. IR SENSOR
The DC motor is an electronic device which
converts the direct current electrical energy into mechanical energy. Nearly all types of DC
motors have some internal mechanism, either electromechanical or electronic, to
periodically change the direction of current flow in part of the motor. A
DC motor’s speed can be controlled over a wide range, using either a variable
supply voltage or by changing the strength of current in its field windings. DC
motor has many types: Brushed, Brushless, Stepper motor etc.
fig . DC MOTOR
L293D is a typical Motor driver or Motor
Driver IC which allows DC motor to drive on either direction. L293D is a 16-pin
IC in which 4 input pins, 4 output pins, 2 enable pin, 4 GND pins and 2 pins
are for power supply. It can control a set of two DC motors simultaneously in
any direction. It works on the concept of H-bridge. H-bridge is a circuit which
allows the voltage to be flown in either direction. As you know voltage need to
change its direction for being able to rotate the motor in clockwise or
anticlockwise direction, Hence H-bridge IC’s are ideal for driving a DC motor. Its
output pins are connected with motor pins and input pins are connected with
controller. In this IC two pins are used for power supply, one is for internal
power supply and another is for motor.
fig. MOTOR DRIVER L293D
UV ray is an invisible light, locating at
outer side of violet rays in the spectrogram. Therefore it is called as
ultraviolet light, with wave length between 100nm and 400nm. UV ray can be
divided into A, B, C and vacuum ultra violets as per the wave length.
Ultraviolet C is shortened to UV-C with wave length between 200nm and 280nm.
UV-C with wave length of 253.7nm has the best sterilization effect, which is
origin of modern UV-C. l 253.7nm UVC has the best sterilization effects in the
range of UV wave length. Through the studies, UV ray mainly kills the microbes
(pathogens such as germs, virus, gemma of fungus, etc) by radiation damage and
function destruction of nucleic acid for the purpose of sterilization. UV rays
can cause the breakage of nucleic acid’s strand, inter-strand cross-linking and
formation of photochemical products, etc. thus to change the biological
activity of DNA and inhibit the reproduction of microbes. Therefore, this UV
damage is also fatal.
fig: UV LAMP
fig: Block Diagram
Automatic floor cleaner is an autonomous robotic machine that helps the
user in cleaning their places.
microcontroller is used for the processing and connection of different
components like sensors, motors, another IC (L293D) etc. It uses IR sensor and
ultra sonic sensors for the detection of objects and distance and the arduino
gives the signals to the motors to take turn according to the position. For
sweeping it makes the use of brushes and vacuum pump and provides wet cleaning
via combination of water sprinkler and roller. At last it also kills the germs
of the floor via UV lamp present at the tail end of the machine.