Cardiovascular will account for one-third of the total deaths.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is cosmopolitan and it’s the leading cause of deaths among other diseases. It is affecting nearly 5.8 million people in the United States, and more than 23 million people worldwide. Developing countries including India also struggle to manage the impact of CVD along with the growing burden of obesity. The current statistics suggest that by the year 2020, India will have the largest CVD burden in the world and CVD will account for one-third of the total deaths. The prevalence of these diseases is more in urban areas than in rural areas.

Cardiovascular disease is defined as a disorder in the heart and blood vessels, including, hypertension (high blood pressure), coronary heart disease (heart attack), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, and cardiomyopathies. The National Cancer Institute defines cardiotoxicity as “toxicity that affects the heart”.

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In the past few decades, the radical change in life expectancy of people suffering from several forms of malignancy has led to optimistically labelled cancer as an easily manageable disease similar to hypertension or diabetes. Indeed, the unquestionable clinical benefit in terms of disease-free survival should not cause underestimation of the safety profile of anticancer drugs. However, it is well known that several cancer chemotherapeutics adversely affect the heart or the vascular system, and a growing number of clinical trials are now studying the long-term side effects of anticancer therapy, and how it is associated with cardiovascular disease by creating stress on it. For instance, Doxorubicin (Adriamycin; also known as hydroxyl daunorubicin) is a drug, commonly used in cancer chemotherapy. It is an anthracycline antibiotic, closely related to the natural product daunomycin and like all anthracyclines, it works by intercalating Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), but unfortunately, it has fatal life-threatening effects on the heart. Doxorubicin may also inhibit polymerase activity, affect regulation of gene expression, and produce free radical that damage the DNA. Increased oxidative stress and release of free radicals, including superoxide anion (O2-) and other reactive oxygen intermediates as well as endogenous antioxidant deficits have been suggested to play a major role in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy and heart failure.

So, proposed work, aims to treat the cardiac side effect caused by most common cancer therapeutic drug i.e. Doxorubicin. This may establish the herbal formulation synthesized copper nanoparticle- Siddha conjugate as a remedy for major cardiac side effects caused by doxorubicin. It could prove to be a revolutionary step in the treatment of cancer and myocardial infarction related disorders in healthcare industries.

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